In a lesson plan from Teaching Tolerance, for example, a text by writer and activist Jacqueline Keeler is used to tell the story of Thanksgiving. I tried to be really careful about terminology. Nobody really knows what that means. One of the things that we know happened from very early historical interactions is that sometimes these war captives were gifted to other Indigenous leaders during diplomacy or to Europeans. We’re going to talk about contemporary impacts that have ripples over time of the Indigenous slave trade for Indigenous peoples today. One helps us to understand the other. There’s a long history of U.S. schools failing Indigenous peoples, cultures and histories. The Southwest—what you see is the Pueblo Revolt. It’s interesting because even though in many cases European colonizers are really using this brute force to invade Native villages to take captives, they actually wanted to have this legal foundation that would make their conquest legitimate, at least in the eyes of fellow European colonizers. Hasan K. Jeffries: Well, let’s take a listen. It’s about social reproduction, it’s about warfare and justice. They to continue to engage in the Indian slave trade. Teaching the Truth About Native American History. How are these interactions changing for leadership and Indigenous nations in the Americas and for leadership in Africa? But for the region as a whole, you know, it does really turn away from the Indian slave trade. Settler colonialism is still another kind. Subscribe, share and see past Moments using these options. Meredith will be joining me for this season of Teaching Hard History: American Slavery. Maybe that’s a good place to pick up my conversation with her. So they were desperate to gain access to laborers and especially eager to get bonded laborers who could be enslaved for life. Shortly after the arrival of Europeans, disease and violence took the lives of an enormous number of indigenous people. These empires wanted colonies to generate money for sometimes private investors, sometimes for the crown. Some of them are even sold to places like the Philippines, part of the Spanish empire at that time, or sold to the Caribbean in exchange for African captives. Furthermore, the Teaching Tolerance writer chided Americans for worrying about the reputational damage done to Sandmann. Teaching Tolerance Five lesson ideas from Education World. That they’re somehow fundamentally different from their Christian neighbors. All of the other remaining settlers and enslaved people are forced into fortified Charleston for most of the remainder of the war. However, Lewis and Clark did not "discover" anything. Hasan K. Jeffries: It really does force you to think about the institution of slavery itself as dynamic and not in a celebratory way of course, but dynamic in the sense of it is adjusting, it is changing, it is adapting in this never-ending search for free labor. The ideas about warfare and captive- taking, they did vary from one place to the next and it’s not the same everywhere. Teaching Tolerance has a broad set of resources, toolkits, and professional development that can support corps members and alumni interested in advancing safe classrooms. Out of these, especially in the early colonial period, the Spanish are really the most important because they’re the first colonizers and partially because other colonizers look at their experiences as they form their own colonial policies. Hernando de Soto and Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, they go on similar kinds of expeditions in the late 1530s, early 1540s, and they kidnap hundreds of Indigenous people, mostly women. In order to understand the United States and how it functions today, particularly how class, labor and race function today, you have to understand that the settler colonial state has a deep desire for labor, land and resources. The war itself takes place between 1715 and 1718. Educators use our materials to supplement the curriculum, to inform their practices, and to create civil and inclusive school communities where children are respected, valued and welcome participants. Could you explicitly define that for some of our teachers who may see that term pop up in their textbook or in their standards? So these events, especially in the early colonial period, they don’t necessarily translate from one colonial context to the next. Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Corps Member Summit Teaching Tolerance Classroom Activities from Tolerance.org Many excellent activities for a variety of subjects and lesson plans. ... For Native Americans, the story instead is about what was lost--lives, land, languages and freedom. Hasan K. Jeffries: Our theme song is “Different Heroes” by A Tribe Called Red featuring Northern Voice, who graciously let us use it for this series. Just what I mean by that is that it can be passed from a parent to a child. Apple Podcasts | Google Music | Spotify | RSS | Help, Christina Snyder Build a Learning Plan. Teaching Culturally Sensitive Holidays – Sherry Posnick-Goodwin (California Teachers Associations) Teaching Thanksgiving in a Socially Responsible Way – Teaching Tolerance; Teaching Thanksgiving from the Perspective of Native Americans – Christina “Krea” Gomez ; Lesson Plans/ Study Guides. Hasan K. Jeffries: Most students leave high school without an adequate understanding of the role slavery played in the development of what would become the United States or how its legacies still influence us today. And there are two things that really distinguish it quite a bit from what you see in an Indigenous context. This really I think applies to how teachers think about the Atlantic slave trade and also about mercantilism. Those people who had already served in South Carolina households, they remain there. A project of the Southern Poverty Law Center ©1991-2020. That point that was made about, labor is a scarce resource, and those European colonizers who were coming in, they are desperate for this free labor and are using this system, obviously, to tap into labor sources. It wasn’t part of my development and my master’s in education, it wasn’t part of my standards or textbooks in Tennessee or Georgia, and it also was not part of the education I received as a student myself, growing up in North Carolina. In this story, Native parents and educators share examples of how educators and schools still get it wrong—and the steps they can take to fix their mistakes. The only place where there’s some evidence for that is on the northwest coast, the Pacific Northwest in the 18th and 19th century, but it’s not a widespread idea. I think the best metaphor probably is to think about as a kind of virus that mutates as it migrates. So that reorients how we think about the triangle trade, how we think about the Atlantic slave trade, because it adds this countercurrent to the normal cycle that we look at when we have these maps and diagrams in our history textbooks. What is this looking like in terms of how communities, exactly as you’re saying, initially attempt to incorporate these newcomers as guests, or visitors, or relatives, and then eventually as a tool for their own survival become complicit in these systems of violence against other people? “Every side has a different facet. You're encouraged to search its portal for more. What are these notions of bondage that Europeans are bringing with them? Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Corps Member Summit. But first, we’re going to meet Doctor Meredith McCoy. Again, well if we had to sum up their ideas about captivity, one is that it’s not racial, it’s really more about kinship and social fabric. So a few years before the Yamasee War starts, they’re 100,000 deer skins in debt to Carolina, which is really about twice of South Carolina’s annual export. Christina Snyder: So, the Yamasee War is something that I would encourage teachers to really think about incorporating into their classrooms because it helps us to understand the devastation of the Indian slave trade, also Indigenous agency and pushing against it. Hasan K. Jeffries: It seems that, what’s also going on, is within that displacement of peoples is this collision of cultures. The lesson introduces students to two texts written by Native American authors that offer a different perspective on the Thanksgiving story than … Here are some resources that can help deconstruct these and other stereotypes: • Stereotypes and Tonto – This lesson from Teaching Tolerance, for grade… But I did at least wear my Lowndes County Freedom Organization hoodie, which is emblazoned with a snarling black panther, the logo of the original Black Panther party. So I asked Christina to explain how captivity and bondage were understood and practiced within Indigenous societies before Europeans arrived on the continent. So there is this kind of arms race that fuels a desire for trade with Europeans and what do Europeans want above all else from Native people? So those stories are really important stories for us to chat with our students as we’re thinking about how Indigenous peoples participated in and also pushed back against European notions of enslavement. So as your students are building out these graphic organizers on the ground, they start to draw connections between their ideas and how they’re connecting to the other ideas or pressures that both lead up to the conflict and then that radiate out from it. So we cannot understand the history of American slavery separate from the United States as a settler colonial entity. As the Yamasees see this happen, they actually decide to come back to the Savannah River valley region, move close to what’s now Augusta and form relationships with Scottish traders who were affiliated with the new colony of Carolina. Hasan K. Jeffries: That seems to hint at and speak to the ways in which Indigenous people resisted the encroachment of colonizers and resisted the enslavement of their own. Telling stories that come to life . Use these resources to help students contextualize the true history and contemporary issues of Native peoples. Along with an insatiable desire for free labor, Europeans brought a system of slavery that significantly differed from the historical practices of enslavement among Native nations. What this history forces us to do is reckon with the myriad experiences depending on location and time. European gun manufacturers actually start to mass-produce these for an American market and primarily for Native American people who want to use these. Teaching Tolerance provides free resources to educators—teachers, administrators, counselors and other practitioners—who work with children from kindergarten through high school. Native Americans of New England: Key Concepts For Teaching Native American Histories Websites Historian Christina Snyder tells the story of what happened when these worlds collided. But this should be more than just an exercise because it’s an effective way to see the impact of slavery and colonialism on African and Indigenous nations. Obviously, Europeans had a lot of new goods and interesting things to trade, or they saw these invading armies of mostly men very well armed. European colonies, like Virginia and South Carolina, New England, even in New Mexico, they’re beginning to be strongholds of European settlement and pushing out Native people. These matchlocks called arquebuses—they’re kind of unreliable in wet weather. So the metaphor here is thinking about when you drop a wineglass, for example, that the shards radiate out very far from the site of the initial impact. Images show Native Americans wearing both modern and traditional clothing and engaging in a variety of activities – everything from weaving to skateboarding. This idea that Indigenous peoples only have a right to occupancy and not a right to these territories that we’ve been stewarding and care-taking since time immemorial. So it’s the Yamasees who launch this war against South Carolina. Where is it that you chose to begin this discussion? To continue, log into your Teaching Tolerance account. Teaching the Native Perspective: Lessons. In early December 2016, Teaching Tolerance contracted with Survey USA, a highly rated national polling firm, to conduct an online survey of 1,000 American high school seniors. The first case, Johnson V. M’Intosh, just when this doctrine of discovery gets sort of lain out and the idea becomes that Native nations are domestic dependent nations. Meredith McCoy: Thank you for that. Meredith McCoy: Teaching Hard History is a podcast from Teaching Tolerance, a project of the Southern Poverty Law Center. Broken Promises: Continuing Federal Funding Shortfall for Native Americans U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 2018 Honoring Our Teachers 2017 Monograph Full Text Arizona State Indian Education Report 2014-2019 Rewriting History--for the Better David Constantin, Teaching Tolerance, Fall 2015 Meredith McCoy: That is such a good point. So thinking about these ideas of Indigenous people being integrated into these European capitalist understandings of intergenerational servitude, it really is a cognitive dissonance with the idea that captivity is something that maintains a social fabric. It does have somewhat of an impact on all British colonies of the Eastern Seaboard. You can find these online @tolerance.org. They started on Good Friday of 1715 and they do it by executing South Carolina’s Indian agent, Thomas Nairne, who had actually accompanied some of those raids against the Florida missions. If we look at that, and we think about it in terms of the broader effects of colonization, it really gives us a sense of the devastation. We always appreciate your feedback. So that’s extremely significant. It’s really the concept that is at the basis of Indian law. They had armor. Part of the reason that we know what we know about these Indigenous captivity practices is that some of the very earliest Europeans who invaded North America were taken captive, and some of them endured these kinds of fates. There were basically three different things that could happen to a captive. It seems that the Yamasee War really reflects this idea of Indigenous people being ensnared in this system of enslavement, the system of capitalism, the system of debt and trying desperately to extricate themselves from it and taking proactive steps in the form of going to war to get out from under it. Native Americans are a vital and living part of our countries’ history and future and this lesson seeks to honor their voices and perspectives in order to confront, discuss and challenge the erroneous history and stereotypes of the classic Thanksgiving story. This episode has been absolutely fascinating. So they all adopt this idea that slavery is an option for enemies taken in a just war, that slavery can be undergirded by cultural, religious or racial difference. There does develop, though, a trade in Indian slaves. So, I asked Christina just what the impact of the Yamasee War was in terms of racialization and enslavement. I have learned so much. If we want to get a fuller sense of American history and not just present a Eurocentric understanding of it, we have to understand really what the nature of colonialism is and how it continues to impact Indigenous people today. You can find us on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. Meredith McCoy: If you liked what you heard today, please share it with your friends and colleagues and then let us know what you thought. Meaning people who are engaging in long-term colonial strategies of trying to displace or replace Native people, pushing Native people out. Writer and historian Bernard DeVoto observed more than 50 years ago that a dismaying amount of American history has been written without regards to the Indians. She is the author of Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America. You see their participation in the Atlantic slave trade, which targets Africans, increase dramatically throughout the course of the 18th century. Early on, when we think about the very first encounters between the Spanish and Indigenous people, the Spanish had an impressive array of technology that was also quite terrifying. You can also find these online @tolerance.org\hardhistory. Music chronicles the history of the civil rights … From college dorm rooms to black barber shops and beauty salons. We should be thinking about the starting point for slavery in the Americas, if you will, at a totally different moment in time. But as a result of that, we have this sort of “If we can enslave you, we will enslave you” system or attitude going on. Meredith McCoy: We continue today to feel the impacts of Indigenous enslavement in so many ways. That’s where you can really see the vulnerability of these kinds of unarmed groups. As you’re building out these timelines, the individual timelines will eventually intersect at specific historical moments so that you’ll start to see the development of a 3D mobile or a 3D model that allows your students to see how these different interests are overlapping and coming in and out of play with each other. They are certainly existing within a context but they are also responding to the moment and they are thinking about their futures and responding accordingly. Teaching Tolerance has a broad set of resources, toolkits, and professional development that can support corps members and alumni interested in advancing safe classrooms. Transforming Teaching and Learning about Native Americans from the National Museum of the American Indian Kids’ Books That Share True Stories of Native Peoples from Parent Map Teaching Thanksgiving in a Socially Responsible Way from Teaching Tolerance So over time, as Europeans become more financially and ideologically invested in slavery, they develop laws to protect slaveholders and to enforce that trans-generational enslavement of Africans and Indians. So, what you see is an exponential increase in the amount of captives taken and also a distortion of war practices. So to begin, I asked Christina, how have interactions between European settlers and Indigenous peoples would actually work on the ground. Its Indigenous slaves. We do have an estimate from one French colonial official in Louisiana, around 1700, who estimated that for every captive taken alive, three people died resisting that invasion. It’s really colonialism that creates the Atlantic slave trade. McCabe Greer Professor of History, Penn State University. The differences between understandings of enslavement and captivity in Indigenous societies and in European ones and how did they then apply these ideas in their interactions with Indigenous peoples? So I’m really struck by what Doctor Snyder was pointing out with regard to Columbus: 1495, Columbus kidnapping and enslaving 500 or so Indigenous people, bringing them back across the Atlantic. Meredith McCoy: Absolutely. So these processes are actually much longer. One thing that we do know is that labor is only one part of this equation. They are trying to survive. Throughout the colonial period, firearms are a very popular trade item, second only to textiles. In future episodes we’re going to think about how this was operating under Spanish rule, but for the purposes of this conversation with Christina, really thinking about the Eastern Seaboard. Teaching Tolerance is dedicated to reducing prejudice, improving intergroup relations and supporting equitable school experiences for … This podcast was produced by Shea Shackelford with production assistance from Russell Gragg and content support from Gabriel Smith. The British really dominate parts of the Eastern Seaboard by then. So we can see both of those dynamics at play at once. Christina Snyder is the McCabe Greer professor of the American Civil War Era at Penn State University. In this activity, students will explore the perspectives of two Native American authors about the meaning of the Thanksgiving holiday and then write journal entries. The first really is that Native nations decide that they’re no longer willing to engage in the Indian slave trade with European colonists. Where was it going to get those resources? So Native people are essentially being kidnapped and sold as slaves in Europe, in the Caribbean. To do some sort of mapping where they’re looking at, what are these power dynamics? So part of this change is how European understandings of the commodification of human beings as laborers interface with Indigenous understandings of captives as part of a mechanism to repair a broken social fabric after warfare or after death. Teaching Tolerance, n29 p38-43 Spr 2006. That helps us understand how even in societies that are very far away, let’s say from colonial South Carolina, they’re still experiencing these debilitating effects of invasion, because European expeditions are going into the interior, because these diseases are spreading, because of the demand for Indian slaves. “Wakanda forever” is a catchy phrase, but it also reflects an idea that is central to understanding the evolution of American slavery. The same limited stories about American Indians persist in textbooks. That there existed in the 21st century, an African nation that had been untouched by the scourge of transatlantic slavery and the ravages of European colonialism, and as a result, had developed technological capabilities far in advance of anything that existed in the Western world. Their trajectories were altered forever. So they’re joined by Lower Creeks, Savannahs and Apalachees, and to a lesser extent by Upper Creeks, Choctaws and Cherokees. It really almost destroys colonial South Carolina and it changes the Indian slave trade in the South forever. Meredith McCoy: So much of what we’re asked to teach as teachers is divided into historical periods. The fur trade is another one, which is primarily with the goal of extracting these animal resources from indigenous environments. But then how quickly the tide seems to turn, not just impacting individuals, but how, for example, the nature of warfare begins to change. This really gets amplified. Teaching Tolerance Classroom Activities from Tolerance.org Many excellent activities for a variety of subjects and lesson plans. "It's perfect because I get to teach my kids about Native American history throughout the school year!" It really varies quite a bit. Meredith McCoy: So there is a mutual displacement of peoples being taken across the ocean. But there is also a lot of effort on the part of Indigenous people to turn Europeans into allies because sometimes Indigenous leaders thought they would be useful trade partners. It’s not one thing; it changes all the time. They can explode and kill someone. The Changing Winds Advocacy Center is a Native American civil rights and education agency that aims to provide a “deeper understanding of the Native experience both in education, in the workplace…and indeed, in the world.” Teaching Tolerance magazine. Doctor Snyder is the 2018 winner of the Francis Parkman prize from the Society of American Historians. 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